[7]. Studies in Turkic and Mongolic linguistics. Ⱨəmmə adəm tuƣuluxidinla ərkin, izzət-ⱨɵrmət wə ⱨoⱪuⱪta babbarawər bolup tuƣulƣan. Kazakh is the official language of Kazakhstan and a significant minority language in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang, China and in the Bayan-Ölgii Province of Mongolia. Qocho, also known as Idiqut, was a Uyghur kingdom created in 843, with strong Chinese Buddhist and Tocharian influences. It was used nearly exclusively up to the early 1920s. Clauson, Gerard. While the Sogdian alphabet was still in use, it was written with the Old Turkic alphabet from the 6th-9th centuries. [2] It was an adaptation of the Aramaic alphabet used for texts with Buddhist, Manichaean and Christian content for 700–800 years in Turpan. The Manichaean script is an abjad-based writing system rooted in the Semitic family of alphabets and associated with the spread of Manichaeism from southwest to central Asia and beyond, beginning in the 3rd century CE. An Arabic alphabet introduced along with Islam in the 10th century to the Karluk Kara Khanids, which evolved into the modern day Uyghur Arabic alphabet. Clear Script is an alphabet created in 1648 by the Oirat Buddhist monk Zaya Pandita for the Oirat language. Today, the Uyghur language is written using four different alphabets, which are: In the table below, the alphabets are shown side-by-side for comparison, together with phonetic transcription in the International Phonetic Alphabet. The Old Uyghur alphabet (Chinese: 回鹘文字母; pinyin: Huíhúwén zìmǔ) was used for writing the Old Uyghur language, a variety of Old Turkic spoken in Turfan and Gansu that is an ancestor of the modern Yugur language. [2]. The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. It was founded by Uyghur refugees fleeing the destruction of the Uyghur Khaganate after being driven out by the Yenisei Kirghiz.

It is only grouped by phonemic proximity; each alphabet has its own sorting order. The Uyghur Cyrillic alphabet has three additional letters, the Cyrillic soft letters/ligatures ⟨ ё ⟩, ⟨ ю ⟩, and ⟨ я ⟩, representing /je/, /jo/, and /ja/, respectively, which are written with an independent consonant and vowel in the other alphabets. In Uyghur Arabic alphabet, it is consistently written, using the hamza on a tooth ⟨ﺋ⟩, as well as at the beginning of words. Uyghur is a Turkic language with a long literary tradition spoken in Xinjiang, China by the Uyghurs. Ⱨəmmə adəm tuƣuluxidinla ərkin, izzət-ⱨɵrmət wə ⱨoⱪuⱪta babbarawər bolup tuƣulƣan. Uyghur is an official language of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and is widely used in both social and official spheres, as well as in print, television and radio and is used as a common language by other ethnic minorities in Xinjiang. Due to classicism, modern uppercase letters differ only slightly from their classical counterparts. This was the prototype for the Mongolian and Manchu alphabets. Alphabets based on this classical vertical script are used in Inner Mongolia and other parts of China to this day to write Mongolian, Xibe and experimentally, Evenki. Most of the Old Uyghur letters have different shapes depending on their position in a word. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. The Rañjanā script (Lantsa) is an abugida writing system which developed in the 11th century and until the mid-20th century was used in an area from Nepal to Tibet by the Newar people, the historic inhabitants of the Kathmandu Valley, to write Sanskrit, Tibetan, and Newari. The initial shapes are used at the beginning of words, the medial shapes in the middle, and the final shapes at the ends of words.

That's it. Alternative Uyghur scripts then began emerging and collectively largely displaced Chagatai; Kona Yëziq, meaning "old script", now distinguishes it and UEY from the alternatives that are not derived from Arabic. The Old Uyghur alphabet was brought to Mongolia by Tata-tonga. The modern Ukrainian alphabet consists of 33 letters. In the 20th century, Mongolia first switched to the Latin script, and then almost immediately replaced it with the Cyrillic script for compatibility with the Soviet Union, its political ally of the time. Its population is referred to as the "Xizhou Uyghurs" after the old Tang Chinese name for Gaochang, the Qocho Uyghurs after their capital, the Kucha Uyghurs after another city they controlled, or the Arslan (lion) Uyghurs after their king's title. Also, loanwords of Russian origin are often spelled as they are in Russian, and thus not adapted to Uyghur orthography. It will enhance any encyclopedic page you visit with the magic of the WIKI 2 technology. It is a cursive-joining alphabet with features of an abjad and [4] Thus, while ultimately deriving from a Semitic abjad, the Old Uyghur alphabet can be said to have been largely "alphabetized". There are few regional variants. Its usage was continued in Gansu through the 17th century. Another notable feature of the Uyghur New Script is the use of the letter ⟨ ƣ ⟩ to represent /ʁ/ (sometimes incorrectly rendered as /ɣ/). Һәммә адәм туғулушидинла әркин, иззәт-һөрмәт вә һоқуқта баббаравәр болуп туғулған. Several Latin-script alphabets exist, which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin alphabet.
The Chagatai alphabet was known as Ⱪona Yeziⱪ ("Old script") (Kona Yëziq). This fell out of use during the 10th century, when it evolved into the Old Uyghur alphabet, although it was taken into use again between the 15th and 16th century. This variation is due to several opposing arguments, and therefore it was accepted that both are acceptable, as long as no semantic distinction is necessary. The script flourished through the 15th century in Central Asia and parts of Iran, but it was eventually replaced by the Arabic script in the 16th century. It is a cursive-joining alphabet with features of an abjad and is written vertically. Additionally, prior to the language reform in 1928, it was the writing system of Turkish. With the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the promotion of a Cyrillic script began, but when the tensions between the Soviet Union and China grew during the late 1950s, the Chinese devised a new alphabet based upon Pinyin and Cyrillic (with some letters borrowed from the Soviet's Uniform Turkic Alphabet – a Cyrillic-influenced Latin alphabet, with Latin letters like Ə, Ƣ, Ⱨ, Ɵ, etc. Significant communities of Uyghur speakers are located in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan and various other countries have Uyghur-speaking expatriate communities. The Old Uyghur script was used between the 8th and 17th centuries primarily in the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, located in present-day Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China.

In 1982 Uyghur new script was abolished, the Arabic alphabet was reinstated in a modified form as the Uyghur Arabic alphabet. [2][3] A Cyrillic alphabet was adopted in the 1950s and a Latin alphabet in 1958. This resulted in five conferences between 2000 and 2001, where a Latin-derived auxiliary alphabet was devised known as the Uyghur Latin alphabet.
Several of these alternatives were influenced by security-policy considerations of the Soviet Union or the People's Republic of China. Kazakh or Kazak, is a Turkic language of the Kipchak branch spoken in Central Asia. The Old Uyghur script was used between the 8th and 17th centuries primarily in the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, located in present-day Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Many alphabets have been devised for the Mongolian language over the centuries, and from a variety of scripts. [2], For the alphabet used for writing the Old Uyghur language, see. (Soviet Uyghur areas experienced several non-Arabic alphabets and the former CIS countries, especially Kazakhstan, now use primarily a Cyrillic-based alphabet, called Uyghur Siril Yëziqi. It is traditionally written in vertical lines Top-Down, right across the page. 2002. This is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet used by the Etruscans. It can also be used to write Tibetan and Sanskrit.

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